Humphries, Charles, and William C. Smith. Music Publishing in the British Isles from the Beginning until the Middle of the Nineteenth Century: A Dictionary of Engravers, Printers, Publishers and Music Sellers, with a Historical Introduction, 2d ed.
Use: Read summaries about music piracy written in English music journals between 1881-1906. Find reference to go to original sources for full article.
Coverage: Articles from the Musical Opinion & Music Trade Review and other English journals of the period that cover copyright and piracy in England between 1881-1906.
Organization: Divided into chapters. Each chapter covers a period of time. The chapter begins with a summary of events for that time period. Then it has summaries of stories appearing in the journals in date order. There is also an introduction, bibliography, and index.
Pros: Has a glossary of main people involved in the piracy and copyright problems in England during this time.
Cons: The journal summaries are a mix of the authors words and the articles, so not completely a primary source.
Use: Find information on incunabula (movable type printing music books) in Italy—how it was done, where it was done, and the people that did it. Also a directory of incunabula available in libraries today.
the how, who and where of Italian incunabula during the fifteenth century.
Includes descriptive bibliography of 156 Italian incunabula in nineteen countries
throughout Europe, the United States, and Brazil.
Organization: Divided into three sections and an appendix. Section one is a history of Italian music incunabula. Section two is Italian music type and printers. This section is divided up by city—Rome, Milan, etc. Section three contains a list of original incunabula, information about them, and where they are located. The appendix includes documents relating to Jacomo Ungaro, a nine-page bibliography, glossary, and index.
Pros: Many facsimiles of printed music examples. Not many sources cover this period of music printing. Extensive bibliography.
Cons: Listing on incunabula hard to follow, because there are a lot of abbreviations and the type is very close together.
Epstein, Dena J. Music Publishing in Chicago before 1871: The Firm of Root & Cady, 1858-1871. Detroit Studies in Music Bibliography, ed. Bruno Nettl, no. 14. Detroit, Mich.: Information Coordinators, 1969. Mus Ref ML 112 .E7
Use: Find information about publishing and more specifically the firm of Root & Cady in pre-fire Chicago. Also find lists of sheet music, music books, and music plates printed or used at Root & Cady. Lead advanced researcher to primary sources.
Coverage: Covers Chicago music publisher Root & Cady from 1858-1871. Includes who formed the company, what and how they printed music, and how it came to an end. It also includes a short chapter about other Chicago music publishers during the same time period.
Organization: Divided into six chapters, four appendices, a bibliography, and an index. The chapters are: Chicago Music Publishers Other then Root & Cady, The Partners, Root & Cady Prior to the Civil War, The Civil War Period, The Post-war Years, and The End of the Firm. The appendices contain lists of Root & Cady publications, composer index to sheet music publications, subject index to publications, and a directory of music trade in Chicago.
Pros: Extensive bibliography. Leads researcher to primary source.
Cons: Type set is like a typewriter and hard to read. All references are underlined and make the page cluttered.
Use: Learn how printing affected music publishing in sixteenth century Italy. Bibliographic sources for further study.
Coverage: Covers growth in the music market—masses, motets, madrigals, and instrumental pieces—in the first half of the sixteenth century in Italy. Excludes theoretical works and liturgical books. Information comes from scholarly magazines, original scores and treatises, and title pages.
Organization: Divided into three sections or lectures. The sections follow Italian printing chronologically. All the bibliographic information is in the footnotes. The appendix lists the items in exhibition that accompanied the lectures.
Pros: Bibliographic references to scholarly articles and original manuscripts and scores.
Cons: No index, the sections do not have titles and it is all in prose, so there are no shortcuts for finding a specific fact.
Hopkinson, Cecil. A Dictionary of Parisian Music Publishers 1700-1950. London: Harding & Curtis Ltd., 1954. Reprinted with new preface by Jacques Barzun. New York: Da Capo Press, 1979. Mus Ref ML 112 .H7 1979
Use: This dictionary helps advanced researchers date eighteenth and nineteenth century French music. Also, includes a brief history of the major French publishers.
Coverage: Music Publishers in Paris from 1700 to 1950. Includes some music merchants and engravers.
Organization: Introduction explaining Paris publishing. Dictionary lists 550 music publishers. Under each publisher is a list of years that something—an advertisement, piece of music, directory, license, etc.--was traced to that publisher. Each date says what source it came from and lists the address of the publisher if it was on the source. For the bigger publishers, there are short histories about the place and its owners. The appendix includes lines of succeeding ownerships of businesses, signboards used by publishers, principle engravers during the eighteenth century, and principle publishers at Lyons in the eighteenth century, and bibliography of works consulted.
Pros: Helps approximate French dates during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries when French publishers stopped dating music. Follows publishers even when street names and ownership changed. Short histories about the publishers.
Cons: Only includes Paris.
Humphries, Charles, and William C. Smith. Music Publishing in the British Isles from the Beginning until the Middle of the Nineteenth Century: A Dictionary of Engravers, Printers, Publishers and Music Sellers, with a Historical Introduction, 2d ed. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1970. Mus Ref ML 112 .H8 1970
Use: Introduction to British Isle music printing and selling. Find specific names of music publishers and the people involved. Bibliography good for further research.
Coverage: Music publishers, engravers, printers, and sellers in the British Isles from 1500 through 1850. Includes a brief list of instrument makers, and music firms outside of London.
Organization: Divided into four sections. It begins with an historical introduction, followed by a bibliography. The main body of this work is a dictionary of publishers, engravers, printers, and sellers. Each entry includes an address, if applicable, and a sentence or two on what or who they are. The fourth section is a supplement added to the second edition that includes lists of instrument makers, more publisher names, and music firms outside London.
Pros: Supplement adds information unavailable at first publication. Contains a thorough, historical introduction of music publishing and printing in the British Isles.
Use: Research springboard for music copyright practices in early printed music, especially in England.
Coverage: Music copyright in Britain from about 1500-1800. It looks mostly at the laws (or attempts at laws), sale practices and publishers of this time.
Organization: A journal article that follows the copyright story chronologically. The bibliographic references are in the footnotes.
Pros: Short article for the amount of facts and people included in it.
Cons: No index.
Krohn, Ernst C. Music Publishing in St. Louis. Completed and edited by J. Bunker Clark. Bibliographies in American Music, ed. James R. Heintze, no. 11. St. Louis, Mo.: Harmonie Park Press, 1988. Mus Ref ML 112 .K738 1988
Use: Learn about the different St. Louis music publishers and how events of the time affected publishing in St. Louis.
Coverage: Covers major music publishers and some of their works in St. Louis from the early pioneers through about 1970.
Organization: Divided into twenty-one chapters. The chapters flow chronologically. Each chapter is two to fifteen pages long and contains information about a specific publisher, method of publishing, or contemporary event that affected St. Louis publishing. Includes a title index and general index.
Pros: Facsimiles of title pages or advertisements from the different publishers. Contains many bibliographic references. Well organized, with fairly short and easy to read chapters.
Cons: Only two short chapters address publishing in the twentieth century.
Use: Overview music publishing, especially sheet music, in the Midwest before the Civil War. Learn about the important people, publishers, and places. Springboard for further research in Midwest music publishing. Also, good blueprint for regional music publishing studies.
Coverage: The publishing of sheet music in the Midwest from 1800 up to the Civil War. Looks specifically at St. Louis, Cincinnati, Louisville, Detroit, Cleveland, and Chicago.
Organization: Set up like a journal article. Divided into sections. There is an introduction, a section on plate numbers, sections for the cities included, and a conclusion. Each section is prose and the important publications are written into the text.
Pros: Many bibliographic sources. Lays out clear methodology that could be repeated in like projects. Concise.
Cons: No general listing of abbreviations. Each abbreviation is explained in a footnote, and easily overlooked.
Use: Follow the development of music type--its size, appearance, inking, and it’s setting in forms in England from 1533 to 1700. Also learn about the patent laws during this era. Find reference to publishers and printers of that time. Use the bibliography for further research.
Coverage: Covers the patents and forms for music publishing and printing. Follows the development of music type by looking at the publishing of psalm books, part books, song books, engravings, broadside ballads, and song sheets in England from1495-1700.
Organization: Divided into seven chapters, A Successor to Steele; The Politics of the Music Patents; Psalm Books; Part Books; Song Books; Engravings, Broadside Ballads, and Song Sheets; and Some Conclusions. Each chapter has subheadings. Includes a bibliography and index.
Pro: Extensive bibliography. Uses patents and laws of the era to explain more fully the printing and publishing practices.
Krummel, Donald W. The Literature of Music Bibliography: An Account of the Writings on the History of Music Printing and Publishing. Fallen Leaf Reference Books in Music, no. 21. Berkeley, Calif.: Fallen Leaf Press, 1992. Mus Ref ML 112 .K765 1993
Use: Annotated bibliographies for research in music printing and publishing. Also, basic information on topics in music printing and publishing.
Coverage: Selective annotated bibliography of writings about music printing and publishing. Concerned with Western/European printing and publishing since the invention of the printing press. Covers the European languages. Contains both primary and secondary source writings about music printing and publishing, including books, historical or descriptive essays, instructional texts, music type specimens, patent records, exhibition catalogues etc. Excludes lists of musical works, writings on individual printers or publishers writings on performance rights.
Organization: Divided into nine chapters—Theory of Music Bibliography, Historical Surveys of Music Printing, Technology of Music Printing, Music as Graphic Art, Commerce and Property, National Literatures, Institutional Setting, and Reference Works. Each chapter begins with an introduction of the topic. The topic is divided into subtopics that also have a short introduction. The annotated bibliographic references are listed under the subtopics.
Pros: Reference summaries often explain how researcher uses the article. The bibliographic references are organized by use in research, not simply alphabetically ordered. Mentions if source has illustrations or facsimiles. Short introductions to the topic before bibliographies listed.
Cons: Does not include most recent information (1990 forward) on music technology, commerce, and property.
Use: Excellent starting point for research in music publishing. Follow the history of music printing and publishing from its beginnings through today. Find personal and business information about music publishers. Includes bibliographic sources for further study.
Coverage: History of music publishing and printing in Europe and the United States from late 1400s through today. Includes music publishers and definitions of printing and publishing vocabulary.
Organization: Four sections. Section one is made up of prose articles divided into two parts—music printing and music publishing. Music printing includes Early Stages and Woodblock Printing, printing Music from Type, Engraving, Lithography, and Music Printing by Computer. Music publishing includes Definitions and Origins, Age of Letterpress, Age of Engraving, Age of Offset Printing, and Music Publishing Today. Section two is a thorough dictionary of music printers and publishers. (A lot of this section is from the New Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians.) Section three is a glossary of terms relating to music printing and publishing. Section four is a bibliography. The index covers all four sections.
Pros: Includes so many tools necessary for research in one source.
Lewis, Mary S. Antonio Gardano: Venetian Music Printer 1538-1569: A Descriptive Bibliography and Historical Study, 4 vols. (Two volumes in print April 2000.) Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, vol. 718. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1988. Mus Ref ML 134.5 .G47 L5 1988 vols. 1-2
Use: Learn more about music society, culture, and practices in Venice during the sixteenth century from the standpoint of a music printer. Find specific pieces Gardano published and basic information on music, composers, genres, printing and publishing during this period.
Coverage: Music Antonio Gardano published in Italy--largely Venice--between 1538 and 1559.
Organization: Four volumes. The first three volumes each cover a ten-year span of Gardano’s life—1538-1549, 1550-1559, and 1560-1569. Volume one is divided into three sections—The Printer and the Printing House, The Publications, and a Descriptive Bibliography. The appendices include Documents, Primary Sources Cited, Secondary Works Consulted, Short Title Index, Composer Index, Text Incipit Index, Genre Index, Library Index, General Index, and Plates. Volume two is divided into three sections, The Repertory of the 1550s, Notes on the Editions of the 1550s, and Catalogue of Gardano’s Publications, 1550-1559. The appendices are largely the same as in the first volume. The third volume will present information like the first two. The forth volume presents a study of Gardano’s publishing house, impact of commercialized music printing and musical life in sixteenth-century Europe.
Pros: Lists all primary and secondary sources used. Thorough coverage of Gardano’s life and publishing output. Different indexes make searches easier.
Cons: Not completed.
Reviews: Carter, Tim. The Journal of Musicological Research XII/1-2 (March 1992) 117-121; Forney, Kristine K. Journal of the American Musicological Society XLV/2 (summer 1992):332- 38; Hunter, David Chamlers. Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association XLVI/2 (December 1989): 380-82; Riva, Federica. Recercare: Rivista per lo studio e la practica della musica antica I (1989) 225- 26.
Use: Learn what lithography is, how lithographs are made, and how to identify lithographs. Find listing of lithographs available in the H. Baron Collection.
Coverage: Covers the history and process of music lithography. Catalogues the H. Baron Collection, made up of nineteenth century, lithographed music from Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, India, Italy, Mexico, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.
Organization: Divided into three sections. The first section explains the history and use of lithographed music in eighteen chapters—each chapter covering specific topics or aspects of lithography. Section two catalogues the H. Baron Collection. It lists all the documents by their country of origin. Part three is seven chapters and teaches how to identify lithographed music. There is also a glossary, bibliography, Index of Publishers and Printers, Index of Composers and Compositions, and a General Index.
Pros: Five pages of bibliographic references. Good footnotes. Lot of facsimiles and illustration. Glossary for lithographed music terms.
van Orden, Kate, ed. Music and the Cultures of Print. With an afterword by Roger Chartier. Vol. 1, Critical and Cultural Musicology. New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 2000. Mus Ref ML 112 .M84 2000
Use: Collection of scholarly essays surrounding the topic of music printing and the cultural implications of the printing of music. Sketches the history of printed music.
Coverage: Covers the time span from 1501 (the advent of music printing) to the early twentieth century (the rise of phonographic recordings).
Organization: Divided into three categories: printing, authorship, and reception.
Pros: Written in narrative fashion. Very current (published in 2000).
Use: Intended for the use of students of the history of printing and for musicologists, but not necessarily will all items be of equal interest to both disciplines.
Coverage: All known music printed by Hubert Waelrant and Jan de Laet identified up to 1994. A catalogue of their publishing output.
Organization: Includes the name of each book or piece of music, a summary of content for each entry, number of pages, kind of type, type style, paper size, watermarks, bindings, and headlines. Reports exact detail for all watermarks and the observation printers employed paper while a book was in press. Includes Waelrant and Laet publications, music printed by Laet and his widow, Waelrant compositions printed by other press, and Waelrant compositions in manuscript sources. Also includes a guide to watermarks, water works, and index of books by short title, index of first lines (in Latin, French, Italian, and Dutch), and an index of composers.
Pros: Extensive coverage. Includes recently found publications. Also includes sketches of watermarks.
Wolfe, Richard J. Early American Music Engraving and Printing: A History of Music Publishing in America from 1787 to 1825 with Commentary on Earlier and Later Practices. Music in American Life. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1980. Mus Ref ML 112 .W64
Use: Overview music publishing establishing itself in early America. Find names of the people and publishers and their techniques in engraving, printing, publishing, and selling music in the early United States. Learn how to date early music.
Coverage: Covers music publishing—people, process, and marketing--in the United States from 1787-1830. Also includes information on colonial printing practices and innovations and practices after 1830 to a lesser extent.
Organization: Eleven chapters, a three-part appendix, bibliography, and index. The chapters include, Anglo-European Background, Music Publishing in the American Colonies, Printing Music from Type before 1825, Arrival of Musician-Engravers and the Establishment of a Music-Publishing Industry, Early American Music-Publishing Firm, Music Plates, Engraving and Punching Tools, Ink and Paper, The Copperplate or Rolling Press, Customs and Conditions of the Trade, and Dating Early Music. The appendix includes, Account Book of Simeon Wood, Inventory of George E. Blake, and Watermarks in American Music Sheets.
Pros: Good bibliographic references. Facsimiles of original pieces, title pages, or advertisements printed in America.